understanding camera lenses pdf

There are lots of numbers and letters on lenses, but what do they mean? This refers to the focal length of your lens. The further away the point of convergence is from the sensor, the more zoomed you will be. This indicates the maximum aperture of your lens, which is how wide it will go, and ultimately how much light it will allow in. When the number is lower, it allows more light in.

Sometimes you will see lenses which say When there is a hyphen, such as 3. The reason the number is a ratio 1:is because aperture is measured as a ratio. You can learn all about aperture here. That symbol of the circle with a line through it is the diameter symbol. This number is important to know for any lens caps or filters you buy for the lens, as you want to make sure you buy one that fits. Technically speaking, your lens is a macro lens when the ratio is displayed.

That said though, you will still often see Macro listed. I remember an old telephoto lens I had, where I had to switch a button from normal focus to macro focus, which would also limit my zoom range too. So watch out for that. They mean hypersonic motor and ultrasonic motor.

This might not sound like much, but they have proven to be a real asset to me in the past. This means that they can sell it again, and make more money. There is more information in that article on the crop factor, and pro lenses, so check it out if that interests you. Josh, Thanks for this information. What about numbers like 40X60, as seen for cheap mobile phone teles on ebay?

Yes, that is actually a thing. I suspect they are quite shit. I am Dr Raghuveer,I have a niton dx 40 with basic lence I want to buy telescopic lence. I stay in Bangalore. Excellent article on explaining the various types of lens and functions; excellent and thank you.

Could someone please tell me? Your email address will not be published. Leaving your camera on its default settings will produce blurry results. Share with friends Share. Pingback: What is the best lens… — Corner of Keerok. Pingback: Is it Lens or Lense? Leave a Reply Cancel reply Your email address will not be published. Related Articles. Do you want to change the color of an object, the sky, the ground?F inding the right lens for your camera can vastly improve your images and overall production, but learning about video and photo camera lenses can be expensive and time-consuming.

In this article, we explain photo and video camera lenses so that you can not only understand how your lens and camera work together but also which lens, or set of lenses, is the best option for you moving forward. Camera lenses and optics in general have been improved upon long before the invention of the camera, because lenses were useful centuries before the Lumiere Brothers were even born. A camera lens is an optical body that features a single lens or an assembly of lenses that mounts to a camera body.

Some lenses and interchangeable, while others are built into the construction of the camera body. Modern lenses attempt to set the angle of incidence and angle of refraction to equal values to decrease the amount of aberration, and feature a focus element that allows the operator to dictate which portions of the image are acceptably sharp, and which portions are blurred. Well, on the side and front of your camera lens you will find a small "mm" with a number, or set of numbers next to it.

This number is known as the focal length of the lens. For this lens above the focal length is mm, meaning the focal length can be changed from any number in the 17mm to 50mm range. This is the range of the variable focal length of this lens. It cannot go under 17mm, and it cannot go above 50mm.

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When it comes to camera lenses, your focal length will not only allow you to capture footage with different visual properties, but those properties will change the emotional effect the footage or image will have on the viewer. There are both practical and creative reasons for choosing a specific photo or video camera lens, so understanding focal length might be the most important visual tool for a filmmaker or photographer to understand.

Focal length is the distance between the optical center of the lens, and the camera sensor or film plane when focused at infinity. The optical center is where light rays converge inside the body of your lens. The focal length defines the magnification and field of view for a given lens. This value is most commonly measured in millimeters. Prime lenses have set focal lengths whereas zoom lenses have variable focal lengths, and any change in magnification alters the visual properties.

A longer lens will give you a narrow image that is closer to the subject, whereas a wider lens will capture more of the area from further back. This is because the human eye has a similar field of view. There is vast discussion on this topic, and some even say a more accurate human focal length to be closer to 22mm. Focal length matter both for photo lenses and video lenses because a photograph or a video recording that used a 50mm lens will have a drastically different look and feel to one that was captured with a 20mm.

Here is a scene from Blade Runner where the camera is simulating a pair of binoculars, and to recreate the visuals you might get from optics like this example below, the filmmakers would use a long angle lens, like an 85mm.

This is one example of using a specific focal length of lenses for practical application in your story, but focal length can also be used for emotional reasons. Aperture describes the light intensity of a specific image or set of images.When shopping for a DSLR camera, people often overlook or skimp on lenses. The following sections explain the basic types of digital SLR camera lenses, how they work, and how to select them.

The focal length of a lens measures the distance between the lens and the image sensor, in millimeters. Lenses can be classified into subgroups like prime, macro, wide angle, normal, telephoto, and zoom lenses.

We will explain this later.

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To zoom with these types of lenses, you need to use your feet and get closer or farther away from the subject. Traditionally, prime lenses are sharper and faster than zoom lenses. Macro lenses are your detail brushes. They enable you to get up close and personal with your subject. These types of lenses are used for extreme close ups on small objects like daisies, pennies, and food. These lenses are also great for selective focus photos.

Wide angle lenses are your broad stroke brushes. They have short focal lengths. The beauty of wide-angle lenses is you can be relatively close to your subject and fit a broad stroke of the background into the scene. One problem with wide angle lenses is known as convergence: a distortion that makes vertical structures appear to lean toward the center of the frame.

Take test pictures before buying the lens to check for convergence issues. High quality wide angles lenses like Canon L series lenses address this convergence issue well. Examples of wide-angle lenses are 15mm, 17mm, 24mm, and 28mm lenses. Normal lenses try to mimic how the human eye sees and are some of the most versatile lenses you can use. Some examples of normal lenses are 35mm, 50mm, 65mm, and some consider an 80mm a normal lens.

Lenses with long focal lengths—mm and higher—are called telephoto lenses. These lenses are my short stroke brushes. Zoom lenses are special because they can be very versatile. These types of lenses vary in their focal lengths.

In my bag I carry a 17mm—35mm my wide angle broad brusha 24mm—70mm my medium brushand a 80mm—mm my short brush. With these three lenses I get a very board range of focal lengths for any situation.

understanding camera lenses pdf

When shopping for a zoom lens, check out the f-stop range rating. Zoom lenses can give you flexibility and versatility all in one lens.Depending on your life, your hobbies, and your passions, the kinds of moments you want to capture most may be very different. Whether you focus on big group photos, incredible landscapes, sports and action shots, or beautiful close-up portraits, there are specific lenses that can help you capture those moments better.

To help you out, below is a list of four lenses I recommend to start growing your photography arsenal. If you bought your camera in a bundle and it came with a kit lens, then you already have one down! Kit lenses truly do not get enough credit. Because the f-stop is a range and is not fixed, the depth of field is limited. This means that if you zoom in all the way, your aperture will automatically adjust and allow less light to enter the lens as a result.

No need to worry though, you can compensate with a higher ISO or lower shutter speed.

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Because this lens also has an f-stop range and is not fixed, you will lose the capability to allow more light into the lens when you zoom in closer. These lenses are great for landscape and architectural photography and work especially well for taking large group portraits.

This lens is by far my least expensive, but also the one I use the most frequently. Although the 50mm lacks the ability to zoom in or out due to its fixed focal length, it allows for beautiful depth to achieve that blurry, dream-like background. The images you take will be sharper and crisper than those taken with your kit lens.

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This lens works surprisingly well in low light and its compact size makes it easy to travel with. Especially for portraitsthis lens is definitely my go-to! Photography is all about your eye, style and how you combine them. Kristi is a photographer and social media freelancer with a passion for rescue dogs, ice cream and all things creative. She was also an awesome photo intern at Fracture.

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Tags: photography buy canon first time fracture guide Kit lens lenses Nifty Fifty Nikon Sony telephoto wide angle zoom. The Author Kristi Camara Kristi is a photographer and social media freelancer with a passion for rescue dogs, ice cream and all things creative. Related Posts.Canon tends to name its lenses with many terms that might initially baffle those new to its EOS system. Fortunately, these are fairly easy to understand, and knowing what they mean can help you to make the right choice when it comes to adding a new piece of glass to your kit bag.

This indicates a second-generation version of a particular lens. Sometimes it will only be this suffix that separates two particular lenses. This designation, which is currently only applied to a couple of the company's lenses, is used to describe a lens that makes use of a Diffractive Optical element. These elements are designed to help control chromatic aberration, which typically appear as coloured fringes around the edges of details.

understanding camera lenses pdf

They are also used to help control a further effect known as spherical aberration, which softens images. It also allows Canon to make these lenses more compact than they would otherwise need to be.

You can easily spot these lenses, as they are the only ones to have a green ring towards the front of their barrel. It's also used to describe the lens mount on these bodies, which features a single red dot that's used for mounting the lens.

This term indicates that the camera and lens can communicate electronically to drive the focusing system inside the lens — and all EF lenses have their own focusing motors built into them.

Because of how these are designed you should never use them on full-frame bodies as you would risk damaging the mirror. Perhaps the main advantage of these lenses is that they can be designed to be smaller and lighter than equivalent EF lenses, as they are working in conjunction with a smaller sensor.

IS stands for Image Stabilizer. A lens with IS in its title has some form of image stabilisation built into it. Canon lenses do not offer image stabilisation for images as standard in their bodies — although they are starting to offer digital image stabilisation for video — so this is a desirable feature.

This system lets you capture images at slower shutter speeds than you would otherwise be able to use, and it works by moving elements inside the lens to compensate for any movement it can sense from the user. With this system in place, you can use slower shutter speeds safely. Image stabilisation is not effective against the movement of a subject, so you still need make sure your shutter speed is fast enough to keep a subject in motion sharp.

Some lenses do offer a separate image stabilisation mode that's designed for moving subjects, although this is only effective with a technique known as panning. These are designed for enthusiasts and professional users, so they typically have a number of things in common. First, they tend to make use of optical elements which are either not present in other Canon lenses or just not used as liberally.New photography tutorials and tips 2.

Latest photography assignments 3. Photo competitions and prizes. A camera lens is a combination of different types of glasses Concave, Convex, Concavo-convex, etcarranged in different groups to give the sharpness of content across the image. The figure below gives a pictorial representation of the inside the lens. The lens specification: The lens specification contains all the information related with lens. Some of these specifications are mentioned on the lens itself for quick reference.

The main parts of specification are mentioned below. We will divide the specification in terms of whether the information is mentioned on lens body or not.

Focal length Range: Focal length of a lens can be fixed or variable. It will be mentioned on the body of the lens in terms of "mm". For e. Fixed focal length lens will have only single focal length, i.

However, in variable focal length, minimum and maximum focal lengths are mentioned. For mm — mm lens, the minimum would be mm and maximum would be mm. You can click an image in-between these focal length.

Aperture supported: Aperture lies inside the lens and it can also be fixed or variable for different focal lengths. We can understand this well with an example.


The F-number range would also change between mm to mm and would lie between F4. There are zoom lenses which have fixed aperture rating, such as mm, F4. This means that the minimum F-number at both 24mm and mm is F4. There is a switch, which can be toggled between the two options. In MF, you have to move the focus ring manually.

This is specifically useful, when the auto focus is not accurate or not as desired. In AF, Lens will automatically focus on the focus points selected inside the camera.Seriously, how do you get a better understanding of camera lens basics? I'm sure you want to get a basic grasp of how to choose the right digital camera lens, but it's so dang confusing with all those lens numbers and letters to worry about.

Camera Lenses for Video – Understanding Lenses for Beginners (Focal Length, Aperture, Focusing)

It can get bewildering real fast, but here' the good news. You don't need to understand most of those fancy abbreviations anyway. Certainly, it's good for you to know a few lens basics such as the different lens types, and just a few lens specifications. After that, if you can learn just a little bit about specialty lenses, you'll have the knowledge to be confident in choosing the best digital camera lens for your situation.

Updated forthis guide on camera lenses will give you camera lens basics, do a comparison of lens focal lengths, cover the different types of lenses, as well as help you choose the right lens to use with different kinds of photography. I'm going to simplify and explain what really matters most and tell you what you DON'T need to know about camera lenses too. Take a few minutes to read this article on lenses. If you're too rushed for time right now, come back later. Pour your favorite beverage, get comfortable, and plunge into the warm water.

You've got 4 main sections on camera lens included in this basic digital camera lens guide followed by two additional sections, one on where to buy digital camera lenses, and the last section on the best accessories for those lenses.

I divided this article up into 4 main sections.

understanding camera lenses pdf

If you're like me, you like to learn by watching videos on digital photography too. Here's a video you can watch. I shot this video to add a second way for you to get a basic understanding of camera lenses. Let me know what you think of it. A digital camera lens has just two simple functions. It must let the right amount of light into the camera and it must focus the light onto the camera sensor. Sounds simple, right?

What do the Numbers and Letters on Lenses Mean?

One or more of the lens elements move forward or backward during focusing until the light is sharply focused on the sensor. Just about every single lens and camera you can buy for your specific camera now has one or more autofocusing systems. Advanced cameras also give you the important ability to focus manually. Smaller numbers like f-2 and f-4 are larger lens openings and allow more light strike the camera sensors.

Each lens design will have its own maximum aperture or biggest opening its capable of. So you're probably wondering why the need for all of the abbreviations and specifications that are anointed to so many camera lenses.

Well, even though the lens's job sounds simple, the actual design of digital camera lenses is quite complex. Camera lens companies like to sell us on the idea of how sophisticated their lens designs are so that we'll buy them. The manufacturers add in all those letters to the name of the lens to impress us. Check out the Tamron camera lens below. And, why should you care? Let's dive right in. Shockingly, the Tamron camera lens above actually has 16 different lens elements arranged into 14 separate groups within the lens barrel.

Not only that, but lenses have different materials and processes used for making those lens elements.